There are three types of stem cells identified: adults stem cells, human embryonic stem cells (hESC), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). Each of these cells shares a certain set of properties including their ability to survive over long periods of time, ability to divide into additional cells, and their ability to differentiate into varying cell types within the human body.
1. Adult stem cells can be found throughout the body as unspecialized cells. These cells are often extracted from the amniotic membrane, adipose (fat) or bone marrow. These cells are multipotent meaning they are limited in the number of cell types they can form into.
2. Human embryonic stem cells come from embryos that have been fertilized in vitro and possess pluripotent properties, meaning they can grow into any type of cell or tissue in the human body. These cells are illegal to use in the U.S. and are not used for stem cell treatments.
3. Induced pluripotent stem cells are stem cells that have been altered to possess the pluripotent properties of hECS. Some researchers are manipulating cells extracted from amniotic fluid to do so.
We use multipotent stem cells in our treatments, which are donated from a consenting mother at the time of a healthy delivery. The amniotic tissue, which is routinely discarded, contains a high number of growth factors, unspecialized stem cells, and additional wound healing characteristics.